Several posts I've recently read that deal with cultural learning:
4 Things You Should Know about Your Community (Rick Warren, on his "pastors" blog)
Studying Culture (Natalie Bunch and Caleb Crider, The Upstream Collective)
Understanding the Culture Around You (David Cashin, Columbia International University - first in a series of six videos on ethnographic research for missiological purposes)
See also a previous post on Collaborative Community Ministry.